Band 4 publications, instructional techniques

There are 79 Band 4 (publications, instructional techniques) questions in this test. You must get 85% (67 out of 79) to pass. You may review answers after each question by clicking the 'check answer' button or you can wait until the end of the test for your final score. Good luck!

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A A first-aid kit
B A road atlas
C Spare bulbs
D The vehicle documents
Correct Answer: D The vehicle documents
Explanation: Never leave the vehicle documents inside the vehicle. They would help a thief to dispose of it more easily.
A Arrange the next lesson
B Encourage the pupil to reflect on their own performance
C Go over all the mistakes that have been made
D Set the objectives for the next lesson
Correct Answer: B Encourage the pupil to reflect on their own performance
Explanation: Giving the pupil a chance to reflect on their own performance helps them to consolidate their learning and to raise any issues that are concerning them. It gives the instructor a clearer insight into what the pupil is thinking and provides a good foundation for agreeing what to do in the next lesson.
A To allow you to record how well you're teaching
B To encourage them to move on to learning new skills
C To ensure they know how well they're doing
D To tell the pupil what they've done wrong
Correct Answer: C To ensure they know how well they're doing
Explanation: If a pupil is to make effective progress, they must have an accurate idea of how well they're doing. It would be dangerous if they moved on to a more complex driving task before mastering all the competencies required to perform that task successfully. Ideally, the process should start with you encouraging the pupil to identify their own weaknesses.
A Give instructions slowly and distinctly while stationary
B Give visual explanations while moving
C Speak or shout very loudly
D Write everything on instruction cards
Correct Answer: A Give instructions slowly and distinctly while stationary
Explanation: The safest way to communicate and give instructions to a profoundly deaf pupil is when the vehicle is stationary. You'll need to communicate slowly and distinctly, using a combination of methods, including the use of diagrams and gestures.
A You should increase speed before changing lanes
B You should manoeuvre first, then signal
C You should signal well before using your mirrors
D You should start the MSM routine in good time
Correct Answer: D You should start the MSM routine in good time
Explanation: Always start the Mirrors - Signal - Manoeuvre (MSM) routine well before you intend to change lanes. On motorways, vehicles are travelling at much higher speeds, so they may come up behind you very quickly. By checking the mirrors early, you'll have a chance to plan and give any necessary signals in plenty of time, so that other drivers have advance warning of your intended actions. In turn, they'll have more time to expect a change in traffic pattern and be able to prepare and act accordingly.
A Flash your headlights for the oncoming traffic to give way
B Follow it closely and keep moving out to see the road ahead
C Keep well back until you can see that it's clear
D Stay behind until the driver waves you past
Correct Answer: C Keep well back until you can see that it's clear
Explanation: The closer a driver gets to the vehicle in front, the less they can see of the road ahead. The safety aspects of keeping well back to gain a better view need to be emphasised and practised. It takes a long time to overtake a long vehicle and a good view of the road ahead is necessary to see that there's enough room to overtake safely.
A Don't overtake until the vehicle begins to turn
B Don't overtake when you're approaching a junction
C Overtake if you can leave plenty of room
D Overtake only if there are no oncoming vehicles
Correct Answer: B Don't overtake when you're approaching a junction
Explanation: Overtaking on the approach to a junction is fraught with danger and shouldn't be attempted. Particular guidance needs to be given about the unusual course a large goods vehicle may need to take in order to negotiate the junction safely.
A Accelerate quickly to overtake before the junction
B Don't try to overtake until you're past the junction
C Overtake after checking the mirrors and signalling
D Slow down and prepare to overtake on the left
Correct Answer: B Don't try to overtake until you're past the junction
Explanation: Advise a pupil that they should never overtake on the approach to a junction. The driver they're following may decide to turn right at the last moment. Other vehicles may arrive quickly at the junction and turn left into your road without taking effective observation.
A Be prepared to brake sharply to a stop
B Be prepared to stop for any traffic
C Brake and stop only for large vehicles
D Brake sharply to a stop before looking
Correct Answer: B Be prepared to stop for any traffic
Explanation: Drivers and riders should proceed with caution at a junction where the traffic lights have failed. They should treat the situation as if it were an unmarked junction. As no-one has priority, everyone should be prepared to stop.
A They're giving you right of way
B They're signalling that it's safe for you to go
C They're warning of their presence
D They're warning you of a speed trap
Correct Answer: C They're warning of their presence
Explanation: Officially, the flashing of headlights has the same meaning as sounding the horn - a warning of the presence of a vehicle. However, drivers sometimes flash their headlights for other reasons. Make sure you know what's meant by the signal before acting on it.
A Ask questions that require a simple 'yes' or 'no'
B Save questions until the end of the lesson
C Try to provoke a negative reaction
D Use searching questions
Correct Answer: D Use searching questions
Explanation: Questions that require a simple 'yes' or 'no' are of limited value. To be effective, you should ask searching questions based on 'what', 'when', 'where', 'why' and 'how'. The power of effective questioning as an aid to learning is sometimes overlooked; it can help to motivate pupils.
A Look to the rear over their left shoulder only
B Look to the rear over their right shoulder only
C Look to the rear using only their mirrors
D Scan all around, paying particular attention to the direction in which they're moving
Correct Answer: D Scan all around, paying particular attention to the direction in which they're moving
Explanation: All-round observation is essential throughout any manoeuvre in the road. A pupil should be trained to look particularly in the direction in which they're moving, to look out for vulnerable road users and to check their blind spots.
A Ask them to reflect on their performance
B Ignore it and continue with the lesson
C Tell them about it at the end of the lesson
D Use it as a warning to the pupil
Correct Answer: A Ask them to reflect on their performance
Explanation: It's important that driving faults and errors are dealt with promptly. Learning will also be more effective if the pupil can spot their own errors and come up with their own strategies for ensuring the errors don't happen again. If the pupil doesn't recognise the fault, you'll need to tell them. Even then, the pupil can still work on developing strategies themselves.
A Reapply for a full licence immediately
B Retake both the theory and practical tests
C Retake the practical test only
D Retake the theory test only
Correct Answer: B Retake both the theory and practical tests
Explanation: If the number of points on a new driver's licence (including any points gained as a learner) reaches six or more within two years of passing their first practical driving test, their licence will be revoked. To regain a full driving licence, both the theory and practical tests will have to be retaken.
A Bring a signer with them on the day of their test
B Declare their hearing impairment when applying for their driving test
C Inform the examiner that they're deaf on the day of their test
D Supply visual instructions for the examiner to use
Correct Answer: B Declare their hearing impairment when applying for their driving test
Explanation: When booking a driving-test appointment, it's important to declare if the candidate is deaf. This will ensure that appropriate arrangements are made for the test.
A They should avoid using the parking brake, as it will take too much time
B They should look around often and always have the car under control
C They should use all the road and only stop when they hit the kerb
D They should use the pavement if the road is narrow and there are no pedestrians
Correct Answer: B They should look around often and always have the car under control
Explanation: When teaching your pupil the turn-in-the-road exercise, you should explain that having the car under control is only part of the procedure. They also need to be aware of other road users and know how to deal with them safely.
A Leave it and try again during the next lesson
B Repeat yourself until they understand
C Start from the beginning and tell the pupil to concentrate harder
D Talk to them and see if they can identify any reasons why it's not working
Correct Answer: D Talk to them and see if they can identify any reasons why it's not working
Explanation: If a pupil isn't responding to a particular part of the learning programme, with a bit of help they'll normally be able to say what's going wrong. In saying what's wrong, they'll often be able to tell you what it will take to get over the problem.
A Approach quickly to reduce the likelihood of having to wait
B Approach slowly and edge forward until they can see
C Stop at the junction and apply the handbrake
D Stop well before the junction, then move forward for a better look
Correct Answer: B Approach slowly and edge forward until they can see
Explanation: At junctions where the view is restricted, you need to make sure your pupil has time to assess the situation. Teach them to approach slowly and get a good look at the traffic situation before making a decision.
A Ask the pupil how they would like you to communicate with them
B Give instructions slowly and distinctly while stationary
C Learn sign language to give instructions
D Write down all the directions for the route
Correct Answer: A Ask the pupil how they would like you to communicate with them
Explanation: Most people with hearing difficulties will have developed communications strategies that work for them. For example, they may be able to use a simple system of hand signals. However, if you're unable to work out a way of communicating effectively, you should consider referring the pupil to another driving instructor who has the necessary skills.
A Get them to adjust the mirrors while driving
B Get them to practise steering with one hand
C Teach them to change gear as often as possible
D Teach them to turn corners while changing gear
Correct Answer: B Get them to practise steering with one hand
Explanation: At the correct stage in a pupil's development, it's beneficial to practise steering the vehicle with one hand. They should then find it easier to change gear, operate another control or give arm signals as and when appropriate. Any tendency to drive with one hand without good reason should be strongly discouraged.
A They'll make the learning process longer than normal
B They'll make the pupil struggle to cope with them
C They'll provide reinforcement of the pupil's progress
D They'll result in the pupil being ready for test too early
Correct Answer: C They'll provide reinforcement of the pupil's progress
Explanation: Learning targets should be realistic and attainable; reaching a learning target will reinforce a pupil's progress. Setting objectives that are too ambitious or too complex is more likely to demotivate pupils.
A Ask the pupil to make more of an effort with their study of The Highway Code
B Confirm the correct parts and then help the pupil to work out why the other parts were wrong
C Ignore the correct part of the response, but offer a full explanation
D Stop the pupil from responding further to prevent them from interrupting the flow of the lesson
Correct Answer: B Confirm the correct parts and then help the pupil to work out why the other parts were wrong
Explanation: You may need to check your pupil's understanding by asking questions. If they offer a partially correct answer, you should confirm the correct parts and, to complete their understanding, give them feedback on where they went wrong.
A Alert - Direct - Identify
B Alert - Identify - Direct
C Direct - Alert - Identify
D Direct - Identify - Alert
Correct Answer: A Alert - Direct - Identify
Explanation: A pupil needs time to react to an instructor's directions. It's recommended that an instructor uses the Alert - Direct - Identify procedure. For example, 'At the roundabout' (alert them and gain their attention); 'take the road off to the right, it's the third exit' (direct them); 'it's signposted to Bristol' (identify).
A Allow them to take the test but make the examiner aware
B Allow them to take the test just to prove that you were right
C Allow them to use your car if it's fitted with dual controls
D Refuse to allow them to use your car for the test
Correct Answer: D Refuse to allow them to use your car for the test
Explanation: If your pupil's driving is below the required test standard, it's your responsibility as a professional instructor to advise them not to take the test. As soon as you become aware of a possible problem, you should discuss this with your pupil and positively encourage them that, in their interest, and for other road users as well, it would be far better to postpone the appointment. If you can't dissuade them, then you should withhold the use of your vehicle. Ultimately, it's the pupil's test and an instructor can't prevent them from taking it in someone else's vehicle.
A It will allow your pupil to concentrate on other aspects of driving
B It will build your pupil's confidence, as you're in control
C It will help develop your pupil's hazard awareness skills
D It will undermine the trust between you and your pupil
Correct Answer: D It will undermine the trust between you and your pupil
Explanation: If you need to use the dual controls, you must make sure the pupil understands why you've done so. If you need to use the dual controls often, it suggests that you've overestimated your pupil's ability and are asking too much of them. If you don't recognise this, your pupil may lose confidence and the trust between you may begin to break down.
A Bifocal
B Half-moon
C Round
D Tinted
Correct Answer: D Tinted
Explanation: If you're driving at night or in poor visibility, tinted lenses will make everything appear darker. This will make it more difficult for you to see in what are already difficult conditions.
A Drugs make you a better driver by quickening your reactions
B Some types of medicine can cause your reactions to slow down
C The medicine you take may affect your hearing
D You'll have to let your insurance company know about the medicine
Correct Answer: B Some types of medicine can cause your reactions to slow down
Explanation: Always check the label on any medication you take, as some medicine can make you feel drowsy and slow your reactions. Your doctor or pharmacist will be able to give you advice about possible side-effects of both prescribed and over-the-counter medicines.
A It improves your co-ordination
B It increases your awareness
C It reduces your concentration
D It speeds up your reactions
Correct Answer: C It reduces your concentration
Explanation: The safest rule is never to drink and drive. Alcohol seriously affects judgement and concentration. It will reduce driving ability, give a false sense of confidence and slow down reactions.
A Always keeping the headlights on
B Always keeping the interior light on
C Etching the registration number on the windows
D Fitting reflective glass windows
Correct Answer: C Etching the registration number on the windows
Explanation: Having your car registration number etched on all your windows is a cheap and effective way to deter car thieves.
A Lock them out of sight
B Park near a bus stop
C Park near a school entrance
D Put them in a carrier bag
Correct Answer: A Lock them out of sight
Explanation: If you have to leave valuables in your car, always lock them out of sight. If a thief can't see anything of value to steal, they're less likely to break in.
A When you don't wear glasses
B When you pass the driving test first time
C When you're over 25 years old
D When you're under 25 years old
Correct Answer: C When you're over 25 years old
Explanation: The cost of insurance varies with your age. Usually, the younger you are, the more expensive it is - especially if you're under 25. Some post-test training schemes are recognised by insurance companies, and new drivers who complete this form of extra training may benefit from a reduced first premium.
A Calm down before you start to drive
B Drive more slowly than normal and turn your radio on
C Have a small drink of alcohol before driving
D Start to drive, but open a window first
Correct Answer: A Calm down before you start to drive
Explanation: If you're feeling upset or angry, your concentration and judgement will be affected; this will increase your risk of an incident while driving. You should therefore wait until you've calmed down before you start driving.
A Drive in a bus lane
B Share a car when possible
C Travel by car at all times
D Use a car with a smaller engine
Correct Answer: B Share a car when possible
Explanation: Traffic congestion is an inevitable consequence of the increasing volume of traffic on the road. To help reduce the volume of traffic, you could try
- sharing a car
- walking or cycling
- using public transport.

A Ask your friend if taking the medicine affected their driving
B Check the label to see if the medicine could affect your driving
C Drink some strong coffee one hour before driving
D Drive a short distance to see if the medicine is affecting your driving
Correct Answer: B Check the label to see if the medicine could affect your driving
Explanation: Never drive if you've taken medicine without first checking what the side-effects might be. Many over-the-counter medicines carry a warning that they may cause drowsiness. They can affect your judgement and perception, and therefore your ability to drive safely.
A Avoid drinking alcohol completely
B Avoid drinking alcohol on an empty stomach
C Drink plenty of coffee after drinking alcohol
D Drink plenty of milk before drinking alcohol
Correct Answer: A Avoid drinking alcohol completely
Explanation: Avoid drinking and driving. Just one drink could dangerously impair your judgement and reactions, as well as put you over the legal drink-drive limit.
A Always use unleaded petrol
B Avoid driving with a full tank of petrol
C Check out any strong smell of petrol
D Keep water levels above maximum
Correct Answer: C Check out any strong smell of petrol
Explanation: The fuel in your vehicle can be a dangerous fire hazard. A strong smell of petrol may indicate a fuel leak and needs investigating. Don't use a naked flame near the vehicle if you can smell fuel, and don't smoke when refuelling your vehicle.
A Drive home after taking medicine for your headache
B Drive home if you can stay awake for the journey
C Wait for a short time, then drive home slowly
D Wait until you feel fit and well before driving
Correct Answer: D Wait until you feel fit and well before driving
Explanation: All your concentration should be on your driving. Any pain you feel will distract you, and you should avoid driving when drowsy. The safest course of action is to wait until you've rested and feel better.
A Be satisfied that you're medically fit to drive
B See your doctor
C Take all your medicines with you when you drive
D Take smaller doses of any medicines
Correct Answer: A Be satisfied that you're medically fit to drive
Explanation: Only drive if you're fit to do so. Some medication can affect your concentration, your ability to stay awake and your judgement when dealing with hazards. Driving while taking such medication is highly dangerous.
A Don't drive at all
B Only drive at 30 mph or less
C Only drive if someone is with you
D Only drive on quiet, local roads
Correct Answer: A Don't drive at all
Explanation: If you're taking medication that's likely to affect your driving, don't drive. You mustn't put other road users, your passengers or yourself at risk.
A Only after checking with your doctor
B Only at night, on quiet roads
C Only if someone goes with you
D Only if your journey is necessary
Correct Answer: A Only after checking with your doctor
Explanation: If a medicine you need to take is making you feel drowsy, get advice from your doctor before driving.
A The driving licence fee
B The insurance premium
C The vehicle tax
D The vehicle test certificate
Correct Answer: B The insurance premium
Explanation: Insurance companies are likely to charge a higher premium for people who have been convicted of driving while unfit through drink or drugs. This is because they've shown that they're a risk to others on the road.
A A collapsible steering wheel
B A correctly adjusted head restraint
C An air-sprung seat
D Anti-lock brakes
Correct Answer: B A correctly adjusted head restraint
Explanation: If you're involved in a collision, a correctly adjusted head restraint will reduce the risk of neck and back injury. It may not be effective if it's not properly adjusted.
A If the ADI and the pupil have any interests in common
B The pupil's attitude, norms and motivation when learning to drive
C The pupil's degree of aptitude and psychomotor skills
D The pupil's level of practical and theoretical knowledge
Correct Answer: B The pupil's attitude, norms and motivation when learning to drive
Explanation: The decisions we make when driving are shaped by our attitude, norms and motivation. But we're not always aware of these. Open questions can be used to explore these issues without making the pupil defensive. You can then work with the pupil to address any unhelpful attitudes.
A Categorising and interpreting what we see, hear and feel
B Dealing with situations in retrospect
C Defining hazards as you pass them
D The selective focusing on a given hazard
Correct Answer: A Categorising and interpreting what we see, hear and feel
Explanation: This is important because, when a learner encounters something on the road for the first time, they may not be able to decide whether it represents a risk. So they might not take the right action. With experience, they'll use the information available and get better at assessing risk.
A At any suitable opportunity
B At the start of the next lesson
C Only when they make a serious error
D When they've had a chance to relax
Correct Answer: A At any suitable opportunity
Explanation: Feedback is vital to help a pupil understand whether they're competent. It can take many forms. Sitting quietly and not saying anything can be just as effective for feedback as talking all the time. The skill is in judging how and when to provide feedback so that it has a positive learning impact.
A Acquire relevant basic knowledge of driving
B Fully understand the mechanics of their vehicle
C Have specified aptitudes for driving
D Take responsibility for their learning from an early stage
Correct Answer: D Take responsibility for their learning from an early stage
Explanation: The key attitude to develop in driving is active responsibility. For most pupils, and adolescents in particular, responsibility needs to be learnt. You should encourage learners to practise taking responsibility at the earliest opportunity.
A Because the mirrors may not be adjusted properly
B To avoid failing their driving test
C To check for road signs and speed limits
D To check that there's nothing in the blind spot
Correct Answer: D To check that there's nothing in the blind spot
Explanation: It's important that instructors explain that safety checks aren't just a test requirement but are a vital part of keeping safe on the road. Explaining the reasons behind safety checks should help pupils to think for themselves and become safe drivers.
A So that lots of mistakes are made, and the instructor can be seen to give value for money
B So that lots of mistakes are made, to exploit the pupil's weaknesses
C So that no mistakes are made by the pupil, to give them encouragement
D So that the lessons meet the needs and ability of the pupil
Correct Answer: D So that the lessons meet the needs and ability of the pupil
Explanation: Some people find learning to drive easy, while others struggle with the challenge. It's important that lessons are matched to the pupil's ability. Mismatching lessons and ability can lead to loss of confidence, disinterest and dissatisfaction.
A A lack of coordination in driving the vehicle
B A sense of boredom in the pupil
C Sustained interest from the pupil
D The completion of the lesson in a shorter time
Correct Answer: C Sustained interest from the pupil
Explanation: An interested pupil is likely to be well motivated and should retain information better than one who has lost interest. Everyone has different abilities, so instruction needs to be varied to suit the individual.
A The pupil will progress at their own rate
B The pupil's confidence can be damaged
C The pupil's confidence will improve
D The pupil's learning is reinforced
Correct Answer: B The pupil's confidence can be damaged
Explanation: Everyone learns at a different rate, so you'll need to adapt your teaching to the ability of each pupil. Building confidence is an important part of teaching someone to drive. This can be hard to build but easy to lose, so be realistic in your expectations of a pupil.
A They should always include a manoeuvre to give value for money
B They should have a relaxed manner, encouraging their pupils to do whatever interests them
C They should keep strictly to their prepared plan
D They should use flexible and adaptable methods to match the pupil's progress
Correct Answer: D They should use flexible and adaptable methods to match the pupil's progress
Explanation: While a driving instructor should have a prepared plan for each lesson, there needs to be flexibility in how it's delivered. If one teaching method isn't successful, then other methods need to be tried to find one that works for the pupil.
A Position - Signal - Look
B Position - Slow Down - Lifesaver
C Position - Speed - Lifesaver
D Position - Speed - Look
Correct Answer: D Position - Speed - Look
Explanation: Regardless of a driver's experience, the Mirrors - Signal - Manoeuvre (MSM) routine should be an integral part of their driving. The Manoeuvre part is broken down into P - Position - Position your vehicle correctly and in good time. S - Speed - Adjust your speed as necessary for the manoeuvre. L - Look - Look for other traffic or road users when you reach a point from which you can see. Assess the situation, then decide whether it's safe to proceed and act accordingly.
A Giving a demonstration when mistakes are made
B Keeping strictly to the lesson plan
C Repeating an exercise until they get it right
D Taking time to find out whether the pupil has a preferred learning style
Correct Answer: D Taking time to find out whether the pupil has a preferred learning style
Explanation: When planning and delivering a lesson, it's important to remember that we all learn in different ways. Continuing to deliver in the same way, when the pupil is clearly not engaging or making progress, may reduce their motivation even further.
A They have no need to ask questions of the instructor
B They'll be able to drive a vehicle responsibly, with concentration and patience
C They'll know what's expected of them and be able to evaluate their progress
D They'll know when they're ready to take the test
Correct Answer: C They'll know what's expected of them and be able to evaluate their progress
Explanation: Agreeing learning should be a two-way process. You can contribute your understanding of what has to be achieved and the learner can contribute their objectives and understanding. At the end of a lesson, both you and the pupil will be better placed to evaluate progress.
A To determine the level at which instruction should begin
B To establish the amount of instruction the pupil will need
C To plan how often the pupil will need to have lessons
D To understand the general intelligence of the pupil
Correct Answer: A To determine the level at which instruction should begin
Explanation: To design an effective programme of learning, it's important to understand what a pupil brings to the process. This will enable you to decide the level at which instruction can begin. It will also encourage the pupil to engage with the learning process if they're not forced to go over material they already know.
Correct Answer: D Psychomotor
Explanation: Psychomotor activities relate to practical skills. When driving a vehicle, a pupil will need to learn how to use each control competently. The next stage of learning will be to combine the use of these controls and coordinate actions smoothly to complete a task. In the early stages of learning, an example would be to move away smoothly without stalling.
A Discuss it at the earliest opportunity
B Ignore it and continue with the lesson
C Talk about it at the end of the lesson
D Use it as a warning to the pupil
Correct Answer: A Discuss it at the earliest opportunity
Explanation: Once identified, driving faults should be addressed at the earliest opportunity. A fault should be looked upon as a chance to teach the point and to encourage a change for the better in the pupil's driving.
A Use one method for male pupils and another for females
B Use the method that suits your teaching style
C Use the same method for all pupils
D Vary the method to suit the pupil
Correct Answer: D Vary the method to suit the pupil
Explanation: A good instructor will be able to teach in a variety of different ways, and adjust their method to suit the individual needs of each pupil. Pupils will come with all levels of ability and different learning styles, and training should be planned and delivered accordingly.
A The Automobile Association
B The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA)
C The Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA)
D The Police
Correct Answer: B The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA)
Explanation: Any medical condition that would affect your driving must be reported to the DVLA Drivers Medical Group or, in Northern Ireland, the DVA Drivers Medical Section. If you have any condition or you have to take any medication that you think might affect your driving, it's worth checking the information available on www.gov.uk
A A downward gear change should be made
B Changing gear isn't always necessary
C First gear should always be selected
D Second gear should always be selected
Correct Answer: B Changing gear isn't always necessary
Explanation: When stopping a car, a gear change is often not needed. Modern cars have powerful brakes and tyres with good grip. This makes it generally unnecessary to select a lower gear before stopping.
A By allowing them to take responsibility as soon as possible
B By asking them to study the instruction manuals
C By imposing your will as the instructor
D By letting them learn from experience
Correct Answer: A By allowing them to take responsibility as soon as possible
Explanation: The key attitude to develop in driving is active responsibility. For most pupils, and adolescents in particular, exercising responsibility needs to be learnt. You should encourage and give learners the opportunity to practise taking responsibility.
A Correctly interpret what the other driver is going to do
B Flash their headlights back at the other driver
C Make progress while the opportunity is available
D Stay where they are, as the signal isn't an official one
Correct Answer: A Correctly interpret what the other driver is going to do
Explanation: Sometimes another road user will use a signal whose meaning is open to interpretation. When this happens, learner drivers should make sure they understand what the other driver intends before taking any action.
A Adapt the lesson plan if it will help the pupil to achieve their learning objectives
B Keep strictly to the prepared plan
C Only continue with the lesson plan if the pupil agrees
D Use the same plan every time the same area of competence is covered in the future
Correct Answer: A Adapt the lesson plan if it will help the pupil to achieve their learning objectives
Explanation: You should agree a plan with your pupil at the start of a lesson. However, as the lesson progresses it may become clear that the plan needs to be adapted - for example, if there's a gap in the pupil's knowledge that needs to be filled before they can proceed. You should agree with your pupil how to deal with that gap, even if it means changing the original lesson plan.
A Cancel the next few lessons
B Carry on with the set programme
C Insist they get more practice
D Work with the pupil to identify any blocks to learning
Correct Answer: D Work with the pupil to identify any blocks to learning
Explanation: Learning isn't always a continuous upward process. Sometimes pupils simply need time to consolidate learning before moving on. On other occasions there may be something blocking progress. You should work with the learner to understand what's happening and decide how to proceed.
A Explain what can happen as a result of driving too fast
B Give more demonstrations than normal
C Impose a speed limit that's lower than everyone else's
D Let them learn from experience, using the dual brake to ensure safety
Correct Answer: A Explain what can happen as a result of driving too fast
Explanation: Simply telling a pupil that they're driving too fast isn't sufficient. Explanations need to be given, highlighting what may occur if they repeat the fault. More importantly, they need to know what to do to prevent it from happening again.
A It will decrease
B It will finish
C It will increase
D It will remain the same
Correct Answer: A It will decrease
Explanation: Detailed instruction should decrease as the pupil's ability increases. An instructor shouldn't be controlling the pupil all of the time. This takes the initiative away from the pupil and could be considered over-instruction.
A When associations are made with previously learned skills and knowledge
B When parents take on the responsibility for teaching their children to drive
C When pupils learn from their mistakes
D When trainees learn from friends and colleagues
Correct Answer: A When associations are made with previously learned skills and knowledge
Explanation: A transfer of knowledge is when links are made between previous experience and the new skills to be learned. For example, a pedestrian who can judge appropriate gaps in the traffic to cross the road can link this skill to turning right into side roads when they learn to drive. A good instructor will identify these links.
A Use a lower gear than normal
B Use an appropriate gear for the gradient
C Use the highest available gear
D Use the lowest available gear
Correct Answer: B Use an appropriate gear for the gradient
Explanation: When teaching a pupil how to move off on a downhill gradient for the first time, the instructor will have to tell them which gear to use. However, as the pupil's skill develops, they should be encouraged to think for themselves and to make decisions based on their knowledge and experience.
A Ask the pupil if there's a particular problem that's holding them back
B Be patient and continue the well-tried methods that are working with other pupils
C Continue to repeat the same exercise until the pupil gets it right
D Go on to more advanced driving situations to speed up the learning process
Correct Answer: A Ask the pupil if there's a particular problem that's holding them back
Explanation: If your usual techniques or methods don't appear to be working, you should discuss the matter with your pupil, and explore alternative ways of getting the point across.
A With a detailed analysis of the manoeuvre carried out
B With a discussion of possible faults that may occur
C With an opportunity for the pupil to check understanding and consolidate by practising
D With the introduction of a new subject
Correct Answer: C With an opportunity for the pupil to check understanding and consolidate by practising
Explanation: Demonstration, where appropriate, is a valuable tool in the learning process. However, for it to be effective, a pupil must have an opportunity to raise any questions and check their understanding. They then need to practise this new skill.
A Conclude they have learning difficulties and refer them to a specialist ADI
B Discuss blocks to progress and develop strategies to overcome the blocks
C Make the pupil have extra lessons to help overcome the difficulty
D Slow down the pace of instruction
Correct Answer: B Discuss blocks to progress and develop strategies to overcome the blocks
Explanation: Learning isn't always a continuous process. Sometimes pupils simply need time to consolidate learning before moving on. On other occasions there may be something blocking progress. You should work with the learner to understand what's happening and agree how to move on.
A Ask them to explain why they think this happened
B Demonstrate how this was caused by turning the steering wheel too late
C Explain that the rear wheels cut in when turning left
D Tell them that this fault can be avoided by first swinging out to the right
Correct Answer: A Ask them to explain why they think this happened
Explanation: Learning is far more effective when a pupil can identify for themselves the reason why something has gone wrong. If they can't work it out, you can help them to understand with an explanation or a diagram. When they understand the problem, the pupil should then practise this manoeuvre.
A Carry out effective all-round observation
B Check their mirrors continuously
C Concentrate on looking over their left shoulder
D Concentrate on looking over their right shoulder
Correct Answer: A Carry out effective all-round observation
Explanation: All-round observation is essential throughout any manoeuvre. Drivers should use their mirrors and pay particular attention to the direction in which they're moving, to vulnerable road users, and to what might be happening in any blind spots.
A Ask the pupil if they understand why it was necessary to use them
B Explain that it will be covered at the end of the lesson
C Say nothing and expect the pupil to understand why
D Say nothing to preserve the pupil's confidence
Correct Answer: A Ask the pupil if they understand why it was necessary to use them
Explanation: If a serious incident occurs that requires you to use the dual controls, it's vital that the pupil fully understands what happened and how they could have avoided the situation or dealt with it better.
A To confirm the final cost of their driver training
B To determine how much instruction will be required to complete the course
C To determine their range of general intelligence
D To help you and your pupil to agree the most effective learning plan
Correct Answer: D To help you and your pupil to agree the most effective learning plan
Explanation: Taking time to establish a pupil's learning goals and needs provides you with the information you need to make an effective learning plan. It involves the pupil in the planning process, so the final product is something they have agreed to and engaged with.
A At the end of the course of lessons
B Continuously, using dialogue and feedback
C When an improvement has been made
D When the pupil has learnt as much as they can at that time
Correct Answer: B Continuously, using dialogue and feedback
Explanation: In client-centred learning, there should be lots of opportunities for you to observe how your pupil's learning is going. You should provide frequent feedback on their progress, based on these observations, and talk to your pupil about how they view their progress. Then you can adjust the lesson content to meet your pupil's learning needs.
A A constant amount throughout, regardless of competence
B Just enough to ensure they understand what's required
C More as the test date approaches
D None once they reach test standard
Correct Answer: B Just enough to ensure they understand what's required
Explanation: It's important to reduce direct instruction and transfer the responsibility for learning to the pupil as quickly as possible. You must ensure that the pupil understands what they need to do and how they need to do it. Once they have this knowledge, they should be allowed to practise and develop their competence without constant instruction.
A Bright colours are very popular
B It keeps them cool in summer
C They must do so by law
D To make it easier for other road users to see them
Correct Answer: D To make it easier for other road users to see them
Explanation: Motorcycles are small vehicles and can be difficult to see. If the rider wears bright clothing, it can make it easier for other road users to see them approaching, especially at junctions.
A Older people drive faster
B Older people have slower reactions
C Older people overestimate their ability
D Older people take more risks
Correct Answer: B Older people have slower reactions
Explanation: As people age, their reactions tend to slow and they can take longer to assess hazards. Don't try to rush them, but be tolerant and patient.